# Bits & Bytes - Counting in Binary and Decimal

### How Integers are Stored in Memory

Tim Leffelman

Programmer, Engineer

October 31, 2018

One of the most fundamental aspects of any digital device is the way integers are stored in memory. If you want to get down into the number bases, bits and bytes of integers, etc. then this article is for you.

# Digits and Number Bases

Just what is the "number base" of a number system? Simply put, it's the number . . .

# Disney Didn't Start Star Wars

### The Next Viral Video!

Tim Leffelman

Programmer, Engineer

March 09, 2018

I really have no idea if it will get less than a hundred views or go viral, or most likely fall somewhere in between. But, it sure was fun to make, and a great way to try out some things on my new CyberLink Director Suite 6 software. The kids and I rocked in New Years Eve by making the first YouTube video, Disney Didn't Start Star Wars, . . .

# Normally Open vs Normally Closed

### Electrical Switch Contacts

Tim Leffelman

Programmer, Engineer

February 02, 2018

When it comes to electrical switches and contacts, many people seem to be confused by the terms Normally Open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC). The root of the problem seems to start with the fundamental concept of what it means to be open or closed. This post attempts to clarify those concepts.

In every day terminology, movement is . . .

# Visual Studio / Team Foundation Server Lockups

Tim Leffelman

Programmer, Engineer

November 29, 2017

For the past several weeks, my Visual Studio (VS) / Team Foundation Server (TFS) has been freezing more and more. It started with file comparisons, moved to synchronizations, progressed to numerous other functionality,and eventually reached the point where I could not even submit any code changes. I uninstalled/reinstalled Visual Studio . . .

# C# .NET Replace several different chars with strings

### Can use this for escaping XML values, etc.

Tim Leffelman

Programmer, Engineer

August 15, 2017

The String.Replace() function can be used to replace all instance one character with another character ( String.Replace(char, char) ), or all instance of one substring with another string ( String.Replace(char, char) ). But, it is sometimes necessary to replace all instance of several different characters with a different string for each of . . .

# C# .NET Null-checking params array

### Do you need to null check a "params" array?

Tim Leffelman

Programmer, Engineer

August 02, 2017

The C# programming language allows for the creation of methods that take an arbitrary number of arguments via the params keyword. Although I have used that feature many times, and null-checked the array every time, I have never really stopped to think about whether the array is or is not null,until now. Is it necessary to null-check the  . . .

# C# .NET Create KeyValuePairs and Tuples the Easy Way 'a'.Tpl("ABC")

### More with Extension Methods and Implied Generic Arguments

Tim Leffelman

Programmer, Engineer

August 01, 2017

I have previously written an article entitled "C# .NET -- Implied Generics in Extension Methods:
A Really Cool Way to Raise Events". This new article extends upon that to easily create Tuple objects and KeyValuePair structs.

As you may recall from the mentioned article, the C# compiler has a really awesome ability to . . .